Friday, August 18, 2017

Art at SSW 2 - Object & Context

'As the Object is removed from its original CONTEXT

It's Meaning is now OBSCURED'

Working so much with historic objects, this is a concept that I deal with constantly.
( Long term readers may have seen the (old!) article 'Aunt Marthas and Damthings'. )

- Central to the grouping above  is an unknown object, seemingly exposed via excavation.
- To the right top is a 'well known' ancient object (interpretation by Graham Taylor).
- On the lower right is an unknown object, a bronze or brass disk bearing a cross like mark on one side.

Removed from their original contexts, what can we truthfully say about any of these?
Are ALL of these religious symbols?
- Most would certainly ascribe symbolic meanings to the figure, with its exagerated female characteristics. But just what did the original maker intend?
- The disk becomes more problematic. A Western / Christian perspective might easily attribute symbolic meaning. But is that the perspective of the viewer - rather than the maker?
- The partially exposed object? Can you easily assign deeper meaning (or exclude the possibility)?


For me personally, 'Art' is about Communication.
No matter how grand or insightful your concept, if the intent is not communicated effectively to the viewer, your work fails. The exercise of creation may have value to you personally, but at best it remains self indulgent.

Thursday, August 17, 2017

Art at SSW 1 - Object & Age


'When does Old Junk - become Archaeology?'

Regular Readers will know that  I am often commenting on the Object within a Material Culture, especially within a Historic framework.

The grouping in the image above was used to illustrate the point on our 'working table' over the current Artist Residency at the Scottish Sculpture Workshop.

The upper group of five objects was gathered on a field walk through farm land to the east of SSW at Lumsden (from  left to right) :
- A broken piece of roofing slate
(Age unknown, as slate roofs have been built in scotland from at least from Historic (if not to Ancient) times through to modern construction.)
-  An iron (?) wagon or farm machine hitch fitting, with a much decayed block of wood still attached
(Use of a hex head bolt suggests post 1860. The nails are 'semi wire' type, with cylindrical bodies but flat and tapered 'cut' points, again suggesting post about 1860 to about 1880.)
- Unknown material as waste
(Has the appearance of a brown glazed ceramic, but is much to light weight to be composed of clay. Top side is smooth and semi polished looking, underside course texture with embedded sand grains. Too hard for a wax, may be some kind of resin?)
- Fragment of glazed ceramic
(A course grained light grey clay body topped with a white glaze, decorated with light blue lines. )
- Broken piece of ceramic pipe
(A very rough textured clay with simple mottled brown glaze on the surface, a section of a cylinder. Other pieces were found - including a full S bend fitting that would suit installing a toilet. Suggests Victorian / +1880 manufacture.)
This group was found in a steeply sloped corner of a recently plowed field. To my eye this looks like an area only recently turned to cultivation. Perhaps once the 'corner dump' area for the current farm. Could also be the plowed over remnants of a much older farm cottage?

The lower group of three were gathered while breaking up scrap cast iron (left to right) :
- Ring of lead seal
- Joint section of cast iron pipe, showing many paint layers on the exterior
- Lengths of what appears to be hemp (?) fibre cording / packing

Although other than the mystery material, the rough dating for the found objects would appear to place them to some point between 1860 - 1880.
In Scotland, all are clearly nothing more than 'old trash'.
In Canada, objects of that age are often placed in museums.

How old, how removed from current popular culture, must an object be before it is considered 'History'?
How far past before it's recovery becomes Archaeology?

Stone Foundations - East of Lumsden / SSW (view uphill towards South)
 Further up that same hill, just about 500 m to the East of SSW (to the north end of Lumsden) we came across a group of what certainly appeared to be three square stone outlines with interior depressions. It was hard not to see these features as the foundation lines for three small, linked structures. The interior sizes were about 4 x 4 meters.
Stone Foundation - North end of group - Kelly for scale
I took most note of the most northerly positioned of the group. Two large stones were inside, the larger laying flat and about 1.5 + metres long. The second was set upright, with the roughly flat surface set at what I would have found comfortable 'striking height'. There was a clear gap in the line   of outlining stones in the SE corner - suggesting an entrance (?)

I certainly found these features to be worthy of 'Archaeology'.

????

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Celtic Iron Age SMELT


at the Scottish Crannog Centre - Saturday August 6, 2017

(ok - not quite as planned...)

'Celtic Iron Age' Slag Pit Furnace
Electric Blower 
DD1 type Bog Ore Analog

Furnace at 'touch off'
Furnace - prepared clay with sand and shredded horse manure
Slag Pit - roughly 25 cm square / 45 cm deep / filled with wheat sheaves
Dimensions - 62 cm tall / 22 ID at top / 30 cm ID at base / about 25 ID at tuyere
Ceramic Tuyere - Output ID = 2.5 cm / Length 40 cm (made by Graham Sheffield)
Tuyere Setting - 23 down / 4 cm proud / 16 cm above base

Extraction - Assisted by Dirk Spoedleter
 Average Burn Rate = 9 min for 1.75 kg (roughly 10 minutes for 2 kg)
Average Ore Charge = 1.5 kg per charcoal measure

Total Charcoal Used = about 45 kg
Total Elapsed Time = about 4 hours (main sequence)
Total Ore = 20 kg
Hammering Extracted Mass - Shona Johnson & Pete Hill
Results ? Sintered Iron 'Gromps'

Iron Production = 2.94 kg of sintered iron gromps (collected from hammered 'mother')
Yield = 15 % (but elevated because mass not a compacted bloom)

Comments:
This was an attempt at running a 'Pre Roman' style furnace (tentatively 500 BC).
As illustrated by  Thijs van de Manakker the pit below the furnace was capped off with a clay disk. The initial disk, supported by a grid of light branches, proved not heavy enough to prevent the drying fire from effecting the original wheat sheaf fill of the lower pit.
On smelt day, the pit was refilled with a mix of straw and reeds, with a thicker (2.5 cm) disk cap. However it happened that this thick (very!) wet clay cracked (explosively!) as the furnace heated.

This caused the heated charcoal to drop too early in the heating cycle, before a truly effective slag bowl could develop. In turn the reduced and sintered, but still fragmented, iron dropped out of the heat zone. Without the usual high position of a full slag bowl, this iron could not collect while hot enough to 'condense' into a compact bloom mass.

Given the frantic pace of preparing for the smelting demonstration - the first ever at the Scottish Crannog Centre - this still proved a fairly good result. Especially an excellent example of the processes (and often difficulties!) involved in Experimental Archaeology.

Sunday, July 30, 2017

C-3's view of L'Anse aux Meadows (and DARC)

At DARC's recent presentation at L'Anse aux Meadows NHSC, the group from C-3 was on site Sunday July 16 - Iron Smelt Day.
This is the short video coverage they shot and have posted:


You may not be able to view this without going into Facebook? 
I will attempt to sort this out later!

Saturday, July 29, 2017

Iron Smelt at Vinland - 2017


This is a fast report on the bloomery iron smelt undertaken by a Parks Canada team, with some assistance from DARC, on Sunday July 16, 2017 - at L'Anse aux Meadows NHSC.
This was in conjunction with 'Historic Sites Day' - and in turn part of the ongoing Canada 150 events.

This is only the second time in the modern era that iron has been smelted at LAM, since Leif Eirikson and his crew undertook the process some time about 1000 AD.

This iron smelt was a very long one.

The 'smelt master' was Mark Pilgrim ('Little Ragnar'). He and I started at 7:00 am with the organization and pre-heat.
Main sequence start with ungraded charcoal at 10:45
(from here on constant bellows work by Ian / Kevin / 'Thorstien')
First ore (DD2 Analog) at 12:00
A bit of mix up there, poor communications / instruction (?) resulted
in the first charge being a full 2 kg , followed by a more normal 1 kg
amount.
Burn times ran an average of about 20 minutes each (fastest = 17 /
slowest = 29)
Total of 29 kg ore was charged, last addition at 5:36

Although the normal burn down to ready for extraction was finished at
6:45, the extraction was delayed to about 7:30 to allow the visiting
group from C-3 to assemble.
The end result of this was that the furnace interior had cooled, the
normally white hot bloom had shifted down to at best a bright orange.
This in turn resulted in great difficulty separating the bloom from
the slag bowl - and the slag bowl becoming completely frozen to the
furnace walls.
Mark undertook the extraction process, but in the end had to break the
furnace apart to free the mass.

Top of Bloom - showing 'scoop' from air blast.

The end result was a 5.5 kg bloom. Yield = 19 %

This is still a bit lacy on the outside, due to initial compaction
being undertaken well below the normal welding heat. Still the bloom
looks and feels quite solid under the hammer. This a marked contrast
to the crumbly texture of the 2010 results.

Cut (and broken) along the mid line. Top 'half' is to left.

Impressive work by all involved!


Friday, July 28, 2017

Adrian Legge - Master Blacksmithing classes in September


I just had this passed to me by Sandra Dunn.
Highly Recommended!


In case any of your past students are interested, here’s some information about two courses Adrian Legge will be teaching in my shop in September.

Adrian Legge, Master Blacksmith from the U.K.  and instructor at Hereford College, is coming to Ontario to teach two blacksmithing Masterclasses.  Adrian is a dynamic teacher:  funny, insightful and guaranteed to challenge you to learn as much as possible in a short period of time.   
Adrian is a long standing member of staff at the National School of Blacksmithing where he’s been teaching since 1987. The BA (Hons) Artist Blacksmithing course was initially his vision after he identified that the blacksmith students he was teaching needed to be designers as well as blacksmiths and so he approached the Art College and an exciting collaboration between the two institutions began.

I find that the way that metal moves when it has been forged is fascinating. It has the ability to be structural and at the same time appear to be delicate. I have been a blacksmith for over 30 years and in that time have been involved in work as diverse as the restoration of 17th century gates and railings, the design and making of contemporary garden sculpture and the teaching of my craft to others.
— Legge



Courses will take place at the new teaching facility at Two Smiths in Kitchener.  This space is equipped with eight forging stations and  a design/ drawing studio.  


DESIGN MASTERCLASS
September:   Friday 8 / Saturday 9 / Sunday 10    9:00-5:00

Cost: 600.00 + hst and registration fee

Over the course of three days there will be a series of lectures, workshops and demonstrations exploring the following:
  • Drawing methods
  • Design briefs
  • Critical thinking
  • The research process
  • Analysis and evaluation of designs as they progress
  • The creation of samples, models and maquettes
This course is ideal for blacksmiths looking to develop their capacity to express ideas through the medium of forged metal with clarity, imagination and confidence.
All materials, safety equipment, coffee and tea will be provided.



JOINERY MASTERCLASS
September:  Friday 15 /. Saturday 16 ? Sunday 17   9:00-5:00
Cost: 600.00 + hst and registration fee
This three day intensive workshop will enable individuals to not only improve their skills and understanding of fundamental traditional joinery, it will also challenge them to do that within the context of designing and making a functional object.  
Joinery will include a branched forge weld, an offset tenon, a rivet and collar joint plus making all of the tooling for the above: punches, collar mandrel, top and bottom snap and a rivet bolster.   Adrian will be more than happy to also demonstrate additional joinery techniques requested by students registering before August 15th.
All materials, safety equipment, coffee and tea are included.


If anyone has any questions or wants more information feel free to contact me:m Sandra Dunn. sandra@twosmiths.ca

Sandra

Two Smiths
8 Grand Ave. Unit B
Kitchener, ON
N2K 1B3
519.571.9538
 

February 15 - May 15, 2012 : Supported by a Crafts Projects - Creation and Development Grant

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